Polish Jew and resistance fighter. Born in Warsaw, she joined the Jewish Labor Bund in 1935. During the Nazi occupation of Warsaw she participated very actively in the resistance, posing as an non-Jewish Polish woman and smuggling weapons and explosives into the Warsaw Ghetto. She also served as a messenger between the resistance inside the Ghetto and the resistance outside, as well as smuggling Jewish children out of the Ghetto. After the war she immigrated to amerika. She wrote an autobiographical book On Both Sides of the Wall [295 pages] about her participation in the resistance to the Nazis.